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Semi-empirical model for radar backscatter from snow at 35 and 95 GHz

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4 Author(s)
Ulaby, F.T. ; Radiation Lab., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; Siquera, P. ; Nashashibi, A. ; Sarabandi, K.

Radar backscatter experiments were conducted at 35 and 95 GHz to measure the response of snow-covered ground to snow depth, liquid water content, and ice crystal size. The measurements included observations over a wide angular range extending between normal incidence and 60° for all linear polarization combinations. A numerical radiative transfer model was developed and adapted to fit the experimental observations. Next, the radiative transfer model was exercised over a wide range of conditions and the generated data were used to develop relatively simple semi-empirical expressions that relate the backscattering coefficient (for each linear polarization) to incidence angle, snow depth, crystal size, and liquid water content

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:34 ,  Issue: 5 )