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In order to detect the land surface temperature abnormal area caused by the under ground coal fire, we used the thermal infrared remote sensing method. On the basis of discussing the way to inversion land surface temperature from ASTER satellite image, we get the land surface temperature image from the ASTER thermal infrared band. Then make threshold segmentation to get the thermal abnormal information caused by the coal fire and compared with the coal fire distribution map get by in situ measurement. The experimentation result shows that the temperature abnormal area extracting from the ASTER thermal infrared band have a good corresponding relationship with the coal fire distribution getting from on the spot measurement. This provides the technical support to detect coal fire area from the satellite thermal infrared remote sensing. The author also put forward a set of technical workflow to extract coal fire temperature abnormal information form satellite thermal infrared data based on the ENVI remote sensing image processing software.