Skip to Main Content
A stabilized power supply realized by chip-integrated micro fuel cells within an extended CMOS process is presented in this paper. The fuel cell system delivers a maximum power output of 450 Â¿ W/cm2. The electronic control circuitry consists of an LDO, an on-chip oscillator and a programmable timing network. The core system consumes an average power of 620 nW. The system reaches a current efficiency of up to 92% and provides a constant output voltage of 3.3 V.