Skip to Main Content
This study presents an approach to utilise the loads as pseudo-measurements for the purpose of distribution system state estimation (DSSE). The load probability density function (pdf) in the distribution network shows a number of variations at different nodes and cannot be represented by any specific distribution. The approach presented in this study represents all the load pdfs through the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm is used to obtain the parameters of the mixture components. The standard weighted least squares (WLS) algorithm utilises these load models as pseudo-measurements. The effectiveness of WLS is assessed through some statistical measures such as bias, consistency and quality of the estimates in a 95-bus generic distribution network model.