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It is generally accepted that the ability to develop large-scale distributed applications that are extensible and independent of infrastructure details has lagged seriously behind other developments in cyberinfrastructure. As the sophistication and scale of distributed infrastructure increases, the complexity of successfully developing and deploying distributed applications increases both quantitatively and in qualitatively newer ways. In this paper we trace the evolution of a representative set of Â¿state-of-the-artÂ¿ distributed applications and production infrastructure; in doing so we aim to provide insight into the evolving sophistication of distributed applications - from simple generalizations of legacy static high-performance to applications composed of multiple loosely-coupled and dynamic components. The ultimate aim of this work is to highlight that even accounting for the fact that developing applications for distributed infrastructure is a difficult undertaking, there are suspiciously few novel and interesting distributed applications that utilize production Grid infrastructure. Along the way, we aim to provide an appreciation for the fact that developing distributed applications and the theory and practise of production Grid infrastructure have often not progressed in phase. Progress in the next phase and generation of distributed applications will require stronger coupling between the design and implementation of production infrastructure and the theory of distributed applications, including but not limited to explicit support for distributed application usage modes and advances that enable distributed applications to scale-out.