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An online signal injection approach based on a special current transformer is proposed as part of a solution for improving the test setup of transfer function diagnostics of transformers. However, the method is general and applicable to many types of substation equipment, such as circuit breakers and transmission lines. The system allows a high-power, high-frequency test signal to be injected directly on a high-voltage bus of an energized system. Due to the self-contained nature of the injector, no external power supplies or signal generators are needed and the design does not need to be ground-referenced. The system can thus be at the bus potential. In conjunction with wireless communication for control, no isolator bushings are required and the device can be constructed as a sleeve to be mounted around the busbar. This allows for economical retrofitting to existing installations. In this paper, the operational need for such an injection device is discussed, followed by the theory behind the proposed concept. Finally, a low-voltage, optically controlled, self-powered prototype is designed and demonstrated online to show the practical validity of the concept.