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With the increased scale of distribution networks, the dimension for reconfiguration of distribution network got larger and larger. A distributed hierarchical structure poly-particle swarm optimization approach using the hierarchical structure concept of control theory was presented in this paper. In the first layer, each loop of distribution network was optimized separately as a subsystem, which could reduce the dimension. The best position found by each subsystem was regarded as the best position of single particle of the second layer. Then the global optimization was performed. Considering the features of distribution network, the principle of treatment for isolated island and loop circuit was presented, which could improve the probability of producing feasible solutions. The test of proposed method on two typical IEEE testing systems showed that the arithmetic performs better both on convergence rate and accuracy, and was adaptive for large-scale reconfiguration of distribution network.