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A novel method of underwater object detection based on gravity gradient is presented, which can be used on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to detect abnormal objects underwater. Gravity gradient anomalies of partial area, which are caused by the object, can be measured by a gravity gradiometer on an AUV. Then, anomalies can be inversed with a gravity gradient inversion algorithm, so the mass and barycenter of an object can be estimated. Simulation results show that approximate information of an object can be provided by the proposed method.