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Australia has been developing and fielding phased array appUcations since the early 1950s. The application areas range from radio astronomy and atmospheric sciences, through over-the-horizon radar (OTHR), surface wave, microwave ship, and airborne systems. Given Australia's unique geographical size, position, single continent, and national identity, it is not surprising that much of this effort has focused on long range over-the-horizon technology both for environmental observation and surveillance of the extensive land and maritime regions of national interest and responsibility. This discussion will draw focus on just a few of the historical and current programs finishing with an overview of the current application of actiive phased array developments for ship defence.