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GaN-based semiconductors are of great technological importance for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes. The further improvement of LED performance can be achieved through the enhancement of external quantum efficiency. In this regard, high-quality p-type ohmic electrodes having low contact resistance and high transmittance (or reflectivity), along with thermal stability, must be developed because p-type ohmic contacts play a key role in the performance of LEDs. In this paper, we review recent advances in p-type ohmic-contact technology for GaN-based LEDs. A variety of methods for forming transparent and reflective ohmic contacts are introduced.