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Three-dimensional ICs provide a promising option to build high-performance compact SoCs by stacking one or more chips vertically. Through silicon vias (TSVs) form an integral component of the 3-D IC technology by enabling vertical interconnections in 3-D ICs. TSV resistance, inductance, and capacitance need to be modeled to determine their impact on the performance of a 3-D circuit. In this paper, the RLC parameters of the TSV are modeled as a function of physical parameters and material characteristics. Models are validated with the numerical simulators like Raphael and Sdevice and with experimental measurements. The TSV RLC model is applied to predict the resistance, inductance, and capacitances of small-geometry TSV architectures. Finally, this paper also proposes a simplified lumped TSV model that can be used to simulate 3-D circuits.
Date of Publication: Jan. 2010