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A novel method for synthesizing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea-ice imagery named IceSynth II is presented. A Markov random field model is assumed, and a conditional sampling approach is used to learn local conditional posterior probability distributions on a regional basis. Synthetic SAR sea-ice images and the associated ground-truth segmentations are generated using a region-based posterior sampling approach. Experimental results using single-polarization RADARSAT-1 and dual-polarization RADARSAT-2 SAR sea-ice imagery provided by the Canadian Ice Service show that IceSynth II is capable of producing SAR sea-ice imagery that is more realistic than existing approaches. The synthesized images are well suited for performing systematic and reliable objective evaluation of SAR sea-ice image segmentation methods.