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Digital fingerprinting provides an effective means for protecting the copyright of multimedia content. It enables a merchant to identify the buyer of an illegally redistributed copy. Due to its property of simplicity for practical implementation, the digital fingerprinting schemes based on homomorphic public key cryptosystems have attracted a lot of attentions recently. Based on the latest research results of the homomorphic public key cryptosystems, this paper presents an anonymous fingerprinting protocol, in which the issue of how to construct the anonymous public key and private key pairs is first addressed in the paper. The security analysis shows that the proposed scheme is secure for both seller and buyer, and it also provides anonymity for the buyer.