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Aperture synthesis technique can provide high spatial resolution without requiring very large and massive real aperture. However, for a large aperture synthesis system, which will involve hundreds of antennas and thousands of correlators, system and its calibration are very complicated. In this letter, mirrored interferometric aperture synthesis (MIAS) is proposed, which can achieve the same spatial resolution as a large traditional aperture synthesis system but needs fewer antennas. First, the imaging principle of MIAS is presented. A new concept, named Cosine Visibility, is proposed to replace the visibility function used in traditional aperture synthesis. The relationship between the brightness temperature and the cosine visibility is a Cosine Transform. Inverse Cosine Transform can be applied to reconstruct the image of brightness temperature. Then, an example for MIAS is given, and a method is proposed to handle the problems of baselines missing and the rank defect associated with the underdetermined linear equations which relate the cross correlation between signals collected by pairs of antennas with the cosine visibility. Moreover, MIAS with a small array can provide higher and higher spatial resolution by combining more and more linear equations with the help of adjusting the distance from the array to the reflector. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of MIAS and the improvement of spatial resolution. The study in this letter provides a means to reduce the complexity of system and calibration of large traditional aperture synthesis systems.