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Biomedical signals carry fundamental information about the nature and the status of the living systems under study. A proper processing of these signals obtains useful physiological and clinical information. A closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems is capable to directly attribute pathophysiological meaning to the parameters obtained from the processing and vice versa. Another issue of great interest in which BSP plays an important role is the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) or Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) where fast and reliable signal processing approaches are fundamental for a practical implementation. The physiological mechanisms underlying these heart rate variability findings are supposed to be related to stochastic processes at the cellular level, to influence of respiration on the heart rate, and to the interactions of the multiple feedback loops regulating the cardiovascular system. Another important area in which BSP plays a pivotal role is the "computational genomics and proteomics." It is true that "traditional" biomedical engineering studies biomedical signals which are obtained at the level of the major physiological systems.