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Silicon on insulator (SOI)-based devices are the best candidates for the ultimate integration of ICs on silicon. The performance and physical mechanisms are addressed in single- and multi-gate thin film Si and alternative channel material MOSFETs. The impact of tensile or compressive uniaxial and biaxial strains in the channel down to ultra thin film and ultra short gate length, of high k materials and metal gates as well as metallic Schottky source-drain architectures are discussed. The interest of SOI-based emerging- and beyond-CMOS nanodevices for long term applications, based on nanowires and small slope switch structures is presented.