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In this article, we investigated the hypothesis that the effects of hypergravity on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) can mimic the effects observed after spaceflight cardiovascular deconditioning. Artificial gravity along the head-to-feet axis on a short-arm centrifuge induces gravity gradients. This physiological condition of significantly higher g at the feet than at the heart level is specific and likely induces blood sequestration in the lower limbs. After spaceflight, astronauts are in a condition of cardiovascular deconditioning, where blood pooling in the lower part of the body and autonomic adaptation are factors contributing to orthostatic intolerance and changes in heart-rate variability (HRV). ECG and respiration were recorded during imposed and controlled breathing (ICB) protocols, which were repeated at different levels of artificial gravity as well as during supine and standing control conditions, and the changes were analyzed.