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The aim of this paper is to highlight the central role of the human in aviation security. This means that appropriate competencies are essential for this service to achieve its objective of protecting civil aviation from illegal acts. However, with the advent of automation, and coupled with enhanced awareness to costs, competency requirements have changed significantly. This paper also seeks to identify the reasons that could impede on the effectiveness and efficiency of aviation security, and the means of ensuring that such the human is sufficiently groomed to overcome such impediments.