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This document concentrates on how aviation security can be largely improved by selecting the right people for the x-ray screening task. X-ray images dispose of a different colour range, single objects superimpose each other independently of whether they are in front or behind of each other, and the single objects look very different from what they look like under natural light. Therefore, individual visual abilities such as mental rotation, figure-ground segregation, or visual search of specific patterns are very important for the correct interpretation of X-ray images. In this paper we briefly discuss job and task analysis, as well as cognitive task analysis in x-ray screening. We then discuss tests used in pre-employment assessment, including a more detailed presentation of the X-Ray Object Recognition Test (X-Ray ORT). Finally, a new project is presented in which a cognitive test battery is developed to measure important visual abilities needed in x-ray screening and related tasks.