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Cells alter their shape and morphology and interact with their surrounding environment. Mechanical forces developed by cells to their surrounding environments are fundamental to many physiological processes, such as cell growth, division, migration, and apoptosis. In this paper, a novel optical moireacute based biomechanol force sensor was developed for cell traction force mapping. We utilized coherent laser beams to illuminate periodic polymeric substrates where isolated cells were cultured. We demonstrated one-dimensional and two-dimensional traction force mapping via optical moireacute for both cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The magnification effect of the moireacute fringe pattern permits a real time monitoring of the mechanical interaction between isolated cells and their underlying periodic polymeric structures.