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Liquid crystals are attractive materials for use in millimeter-wave band communications devices due to their large birefringence and reconfigurability. However, characterizing these materials is challenging at these frequencies. This work describes the modeling tools that have been developed for the accurate analysis of the liquid crystal orientation and of the wave propagation through the inhomogeneous and anisotropic liquid crystal layer. It also shows how the modeling has been used in conjunction with experimental measurement to characterize liquid crystal materials over a wide frequency range.