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ZnO has attracted considerable attention for optical device applications because of several potential advantages over GaN, such as commercial availability of bulk single crystals and a larger exciton binding energy (~60 meV compared with ~25 meV for GaN). Recent improvements in the control of background conductivity of ZnO and demonstrations of p-type doping have intensified interest in this material for applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, we summarize recent progress in ZnO-based LEDs. Physical and electrical properties, bandgap engineering, and growth of n- and p-type ZnO thin films are also reviewed.