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Si modulators and Ge photodetectors are monolithically integrated on Si-on-insulator. The carrier-depletion-type Si modulators achieved high modulation efficiency and speed (V ?? L ?? = 2.56 V??cm, 10 Gb/s). Low-voltage operation (V RF = 1 V pp) was also demonstrated. Introducing a low-thermal-budget postepitaxy anneal improves the performance of the Ge photodetectors, thus resulting in significantly improved dark current. The responsivity and speed in the low-voltage regime are also enhanced, which enhances low-voltage or even short-circuit (V Bias = 0 V) operation.