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The near-sensor image processing concept, which has earlier been theoretically described, is here verified with an implementation. The NSIP describes a method to implement a two-dimensional (2-D) image sensor array with processing capacity in every pixel. Traditionally, there is a contradiction between high spatial resolution and complex processor elements, In the NSIP concept we have a nondestructive photodiode readout and we can thereby process binary images without loosing gray-scale information. The global image processing is handled by an asynchronous Global Logical Unit. These two features makes it possible to have efficient image processing in a small processor element. Electrical problems such as power consumption and fixed pattern noise are solved. All design is aimed at a 128/spl times/128 pixels NSIP in a 0.8 /spl mu/m double-metal single-poly CMOS process. We have fabricated and measured a 32/spl times/32 pixels NSIP. We also give examples of image processing tasks such as gradient and maximum detection, histogram equalization, and thresholding with hysteresis. In the NSIP concept automatic light adaptivity within a 160 dB range is possible.
Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:4 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: Sept. 1996