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This paper presents a unified architecture for the compact implementation of several key elementary functions, including reciprocal, square root, and logarithm, in single-precision floating-point arithmetic. The proposed high-throughput design is based on uniform domain segmentation and curve fitting techniques. Numerically accurate least-squares regression is utilized to calculate the polynomial coefficients. The architecture is optimized by analyzing the trade-off between the size of the required memory and the precision of intermediate variables to achieve the minimum 23-bit accuracy required for single-precision floating-point representation. The efficiency of the proposed unified data path is demonstrated on a common field-programmable gate array.