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We propose a new distance measure for face recognition and human gait recognition. Each probe image (a face image or an average human silhouette image) is represented as a set of local features uniformly sampled over a grid with fixed spacing, and each gallery image is represented as a set of local features sampled at each pixel. We formulate an integer programming problem to compute the distance (referred to as the image-to-class distance) from one probe image to all the gallery images belonging to a certain class, in which any feature of the probe image can be matched to only one feature from one of the gallery images. Considering computational efficiency as well as the fact that face images or average human silhouette images are roughly aligned in the preprocessing step, we also enforce a spatial neighborhood constraint by only allowing neighboring features that are within a given spatial distance to be considered for feature matching. The integer programming problem is further treated as a classical minimum-weight bipartite graph matching problem, which can be efficiently solved with the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm. We perform comprehensive experiments on three benchmark face databases: 1) the CMU PIE database; 2) the FERET database; and 3) the FRGC database, as well as the USF Human ID gait database. The experiments clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of our image-to-class distance.
Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:20 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: March 2010