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This paper deals with modelling and analyzing specific transient states of voltages (i.e., of lightning surges in electric power systems of high voltages). The lightning surges arriving in a substation are impacted by more complicated wave effects. Those effects result from a complex spatial structure of each substation, and are determined by all equipment units mounted on it. A model of an electric power line and substation developed for computer software Electromagnetic Transients Program-Alternative Transients Program is presented in this paper. This model includes wave effects and nonlinear effects. It is based on a set of appropriately connected elements (i.e., distributed parameter elements and lumped parameter elements). Furthermore, the analysis results of lightning surges as well as the optimization results of a surge protection system installed in a 110-kV substation are presented in this paper.