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Detection of microbial pathogens in food is the solution to the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety. New biomolecular approaches for foodborne pathogen detection are being developed to improve the biosensor characteristics such as sensitivity and selectivity, also which is rapid, reliable, cost-effective, and suitable for in situ analysis. Recently, conducting polymers have drawn attention in the development of biosensors. The electrically conducting polymers have numerous features, which allow them to act as excellent materials for immobilization of biomolecules. Also, their unique properties make them appealing alternatives for specific materials currently employed for the fabrication of biosensors. Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive literature review detailing the salient features of conducting polymers and their application to biosensors with an emphasis on foodborne pathogen detection.