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Blood Glucose Prediction Using Stochastic Modeling in Neonatal Intensive Care

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6 Author(s)
Le Compte, A.J. ; Dept. of Mech. Eng., Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand ; Lee, D.S. ; Chase, J.G. ; Lin, J.
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Hyperglycemia is a common metabolic problem in premature, low-birth-weight infants. Blood glucose homeostasis in this group is often disturbed by immaturity of endogenous regulatory systems and the stress of their condition in intensive care. A dynamic model capturing the fundamental dynamics of the glucose regulatory system provides a measure of insulin sensitivity (SI). Forecasting the most probable future SI can significantly enhance real-time glucose control by providing a clinically validated/proven level of confidence on the outcome of an intervention, and thus, increased safety against hypoglycemia. A 2-D kernel model of SI is fitted to 3567 h of identified, time-varying SI from retrospective clinical data of 25 neonatal patients with birth gestational age 23 to 28.9 weeks. Conditional probability estimates are used to determine SI probability intervals. A lag-2 stochastic model and adjustments of the variance estimator are used to explore the bias-variance tradeoff in the hour-to-hour variation of SI. The model captured 62.6% and 93.4% of in-sample SI predictions within the (25th-75th) and (5th-95th) probability forecast intervals. This overconservative result is also present on the cross-validation cohorts and in the lag-2 model. Adjustments to the variance estimator found a reduction to 10%-50% of the original value provided optimal coverage with 54.7% and 90.9% in the (25th-75th) and (5th-95th) intervals. A stochastic model of SI provided conservative forecasts, which can add a layer of safety to real-time control. Adjusting the variance estimator provides a more accurate, cohort-specific stochastic model of SI dynamics in the neonate.

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:57 ,  Issue: 3 )