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Protovis: A Graphical Toolkit for Visualization

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2 Author(s)
Bostock, M. ; Comput. Sci. Dept., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, USA ; Heer, J.

Despite myriad tools for visualizing data, there remains a gap between the notational efficiency of high-level visualization systems and the expressiveness and accessibility of low-level graphical systems. Powerful visualization systems may be inflexible or impose abstractions foreign to visual thinking, while graphical systems such as rendering APIs and vector-based drawing programs are tedious for complex work. We argue that an easy-to-use graphical system tailored for visualization is needed. In response, we contribute Protovis, an extensible toolkit for constructing visualizations by composing simple graphical primitives. In Protovis, designers specify visualizations as a hierarchy of marks with visual properties defined as functions of data. This representation achieves a level of expressiveness comparable to low-level graphics systems, while improving efficiency - the effort required to specify a visualization - and accessibility - the effort required to learn and modify the representation. We substantiate this claim through a diverse collection of examples and comparative analysis with popular visualization tools.

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Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:15 ,  Issue: 6 )