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Robust Simulation Methodology for Surface-Roughness Loss in Interconnect and Package Modelings

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3 Author(s)
Quan Chen ; Dept. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Univ. of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China ; Hoi Wai Choi ; Ngai Wong

In multigigahertz integrated-circuit design, the extra energy loss caused by conductor surface roughness in metallic interconnects and packagings is more evident than ever before and demands explicit consideration for accurate prediction of signal integrity and energy consumption. Existing techniques based on analytical approximation, despite simple formulations, suffer from restrictive valid ranges, namely, either small or large roughness/frequencies. In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient numerical-simulation methodology applicable to evaluating general surface roughness, described by parameterized stochastic processes, across a wide frequency band. Traditional computation-intensive electromagnetic simulation is avoided via a tailored scalar-wave modeling to capture the power loss due to surface roughness. The spectral stochastic collocation method is applied to construct the complete statistical model. Comparisons with full wave simulation as well as existing methods in their respective valid ranges then verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:28 ,  Issue: 11 )