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We propose a new model of pulse propagation over a linear dispersive optical channel and use this model to comprehensively analyze the performance of spectral amplitude encoding optical code-division multiplexing (SAE/OCDM) systems under the impact of group velocity dispersion (GVD). We quantitatively discuss the impact of GVD on various aspects of SAE/OCDM system performance, including the number of supportable users and the maximum transmission length and power penalty. We also investigate the system performance with several types of optical fibers, such as single-mode fiber (SMF), dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF), and nonzero DSF. In addition, we discuss techniques to compensate for GVD so that the performance of SAE/OCDM systems can be improved.