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This paper describes the design, realization and testing of a refractometer based on the principle of transmission phase grating. An integrated multichannel microfluidic chip is used as a basic optical component for building the refractometer. A laser light beam is coupled to the top of the microfluidic chip and the generated diffraction pattern is recorded by a CCD camera and the intensities of the 0th and plusmn1st order are further analyzed. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using standard soft lithography technology. The realized refractometer has a refractive index resolution of 1.0 times 10-5.