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The vision of GT-PRC's 3D systems is to go beyond 3D ICs to miniaturize the entire electronic or bioelectronic system components to nanoscale, such as passive components, system interconnections, thermal structures, and power supplies. Recent advances in the synthesis of nanomaterials with outstanding properties combined with novel processing technologies can lead to highly miniaturized, highly functional, and lowcost components and systems (Table 2). The nano to microscale wiring on system packages, off-chip nanointerconnections, and functional nanocomponents for RF, digital, and biofunctions will eventually migrate systems to nanoscale. Nanopackaging, therefore, should transform the handheld devices of today to become megafunctional convergent systems with computing, communications, and sensor capabilities.