Skip to Main Content
We have performed time transfer experiments based on passive listening in fiber optical networks using Packet over synchronous optical networking (SONET)/synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH). The experiments have been performed with different complexity and over different distances. For assessment of the results, we have used a GPS link based on carrier-phase observations. On a 560-km link, precision that is relative to the GPS link of <; 1 ns has been obtained over several months. In this paper, we describe and quantify the different error sources influencing the fiber time transfer measurements. We show that the temperature dependence of the optical fiber is the major contribution to the error budget, and, thus, reducing this effect should be the best way of improving the results.