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In order to improve the precision and real-time character of the traditional video-based traffic detector, a novel vehicle detection system based on line scan camera is developed. In this system, the vertical view images of vehicles are captured by two line scan cameras which are mounted on the pole's arm over the roadway; The distance between two cameras is 2 meters along the road. The vehicle's outline region in the captured image is extracted with a wavelet transform algorithm, and the vehicle's speed is estimated by a curve correlation method. Compared with video camera, the line scan camera only detects the moving objects and the static background of the pavement in the captured image hardly changes, hence the vehicle detection algorithm has a lower complexity and consumes less time. Moreover, the measurement precision of the vehicle's speed is much higher than the video-based traffic detector since the line scan camera has a frame rate of 1000Frames/s, while the rate of video camera is only 25~30 Frames/s.