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The range profile is redundant and disordered because the sample interval time is less than transmitted pulse width. The accurate estimation and optimization of the target range profile are essential for realizing the airborne microwave sensor detection system. In this paper, an algorithm for the real-time estimation and optimization of the target range profile due to over-sampling is presented for the airborne stepped frequency pulse sensor system. Under the condition of over-sampling this new algorithm employs the FFT and optimization method to estimate and optimize the target range profile within antenna beam dwell time by using high speed DSP. Through the simulation of sensor data, the target range profile spectrum is measured and analyzed. The result of simulation is that this new algorithm can reduce the effect of over-sampling on the range profile and obtain high resolution range profile of target.