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According to the mission of space detection and measurement, a space target detection system based on a two-dimensional scanning micro-mirror and a laser rangefinder is presented. The micro-mirror is fabricated by MEMS technology and actuated by piezoelectricity. It has two DOF and changes the direction of the emitted laser beam for a regional 2D scanning. The scanning angles are detected by piezoresistors which are integrated in the scanning mirror. The beam reflected from the space target is received by the ranging module. With the contrast between the emitted beam and the reflected beam, the relative range to the space target is calculated by the phase-shift ranging method. With the scanning angles of micro-mirror and the corresponding time of the reflected beam, the relative orientation to the space target is calculated by the orientation module, accordingly. The system which can measure the relative position of the space target has great advantages of small volume, low power consumption and high integration. It has a wide application for space target detection and measurement in micro-spacecraft.