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We review recent advances in subwavelength high-index-contrast gratings (HCGs) and a variety of applications in optoelectronic devices, including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), tunable VCSELs, high-Q optical resonators, and low-loss hollow-core waveguides (HWs). HCGs can serve as broadband (Delta lambda/lambda ~ 35%), high-reflectivity (>99%) mirrors for surface-normal incident light, which is useful to replace conventional distributed Bragg reflectors in optical devices. HCGs can also be designed as high-Q resonators with output coupling in the surface-normal direction. Finally, we discuss a novel design of HCG as shallow angle reflectors and HWs.