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The paper deals briefly with a few widely-used image signal processing algorithms and discusses how these can be incorporated on the same silicon chip as that of the c.c.d. scanner. Recent work on c.c.d. scanners is reviewed and solid-state scanners which include on-chip signal processing functions are described. Future trends are towards `smartÂ¿ scanners; these are scanners with on-chip real-time processing functions, such as analogue-to-digital conversion, thresholding, data compaction, edge enhancement and other real-time image processing functions.