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An urgent problem facing urban management departments and public transport enterprises has been how to dispatch and manage public transit vehicles in an efficacious way and how to develop the Strategy of Public Transport Priority in China. For the purpose of upgrading public transportation service and shortening the travel time of passengers, great importance should be attached to studies on the urban intelligent public transportation dispatching system. For this objective, this paper, by means of comprehensively applying advanced communication technologies, computer network technologies and transit operation and management methods, and with the use of theoretical knowledge of Systems Engineering, builds up a framework system for urban intelligent public transportation dispatching system and analyzes the functional objective of the system as well as information flow lying behind the intelligent dispatching system. In addition, by meticulous examination of feasible dispatching methods particular to China's practical situation in public transportation system, this paper construes the determination of real-time dispatching mode as a sort of Pattern Recognition and further provides ways based on BP Neural Network to determine real-time dispatching modes of public transit vehicles. Such research results will serve as reference and basis for the development and application of urban intelligent public transportation dispatching system.