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The particular effects of noise upon logic gate and flip-flop circuits and the resultant general effects upon digital systems are considered. Common sources of noise are outlined andtheir significance in integrated circuit systems is considered. Such sources include crosstalk, reflections, common-earth impedance coupling and supply line noise. Present methods of assessment and specification of d.c. noise margin and a.c. or pulse noise immunity are reviewed and examples are given of the application of such methods to representative commercial integrated circuits.