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Surface impedance, transverse and longitudinal impedances are defined in analogy with the circuit theory definition. The concept of wave impedance and its relation to orthogonality of electric and magnetic fields is discussed. It is shown that in the case of multi-mode transmission, the wave impedance is not unique. Wave impedances of E and H modes in dielectric-filled waveguides and different impedance characteristics of a circular cylindrical waveguide containing two coaxial dielectrics and a coaxial guide containing two different dielectrics are discussed.