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The paper compares the requirements for marine and aeronautical navigation. In radio navigation a knowledge of the path of the radio waves and the velocity of wave propagation along the path is essential. Distance-bearing navigation, hyperbolic navigation and radio Doppler navigation are considered. The new techniques of navigation discussed are inertial, mobile high stability sources, very low radio frequencies, radio telescopes and earth satellites. Systems for berthing ships and landing aircraft during bad visibility are described. The paper concludes with some proposals for automation in air traffic control.