Skip to Main Content
This paper considers the problem of time difference-of-arrival (TDOA) source localization when the TDOA measurements from multiple disjoint sources are subject to the same sensor position displacements from the available sensor positions. This is a challenging problem and closed-form solution with good localization accuracy has yet to be found. This paper proposes an estimator that can achieve this purpose. The proposed algorithm jointly estimates the unknown source and sensor positions to take the advantage that the TDOAs from different sources have the same sensor position displacements. The joint estimation is a highly nonlinear problem due to the coupling of source and sensor positions in the measurement equations. We introduce the novel idea of hypothesized source locations in the algorithm development to enable the formulation of psuedolinear equations, thereby leading to the establishment of closed-form solution for source location estimates. Besides the advantage of closed-form, the newly developed algorithm is shown analytically, under the condition that the TDOA measurement noise and the sensor position errors are sufficiently small, to reach the CRLB accuracy. For clarity, the localization of two disjoint sources is used in the algorithm development. The developed algorithm is then examined under the special case of a single source and extended to the more general case of more than two unknown sources. The theoretical developments are supported by simulations.