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Weak harmonic components can easily be obscured by nearby strong harmonics due to the spectral leakage in the power system. To obtain a window suitable for solving the problem, the triangular self-convolution window (TSCW) is constructed, with the triangular window being the parent window to take advantages of its narrow major lobe and simple computation. A TSCW-based phase difference correction algorithm for calculating the power system signal parameters, such as frequency, phase, and amplitude, is presented in this paper. The TSCW has a low peak sidelobe level, a high sidelobe rolloff rate, and a simple spectral representation. Leakage errors and harmonic interferences are thus considerably reduced by weighting samples with the TSCW. The TSCW-based phase difference correction algorithm is free of solving high-order equations, and the overall method can easily be implemented in embedded systems. The effectiveness of the method proposed was analyzed by means of computer simulations and practical experiments for multifrequency signals without noise and with quantization noise.