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The preparation of single-crystal silicon for the production of voltage-reference diodes

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2 Author(s)

Silicon crystals with phosphorus concentrations up to 1.5×1019 atoms per cubic centimetre have been prepared by the Czochralski technique. The phosphorus was added either in the form of ammonium orthophosphate or by means of a silicon-phosphorus alloy containing approximately 1¿% phosphorus. It is shown that the use of such an alloy as the doping agent results in improved control of the phosphorus concentration compared with the results obtained with ammonium orthophosphate. Aluminium-wire-type alloyed diodes were prepared using silicon with phosphorus concentrations from 2×1016 to 1.5×1019 atoms per cubic centimetre. The breakdown voltage of these diodes was found to be dependent on the phosphorus concentration up to 3×1018 atoms per cubic centimetre. At concentrations greater than this, the breakdown voltage was found to be sensitive to the alloying conditions. The mechanism of the formation of the p-n junction in silicon with phosphorus concentrations greater than 3×1018 atoms per cubic centimetre is discussed.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IEE - Part B: Electronic and Communication Engineering  (Volume:106 ,  Issue: 15 )

Date of Publication:

May 1959

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