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A hybrid algorithm for phasor estimation is proposed that is immune to DC offset and current transformer (CT) saturation problems. The algorithm utilizes partial sum (PS)-based and multistage least-squares (MLS)-based methods before and after CT saturation is detected, respectively. The MLS-based method is initiated when the third difference of the secondary current detects the start point of the first saturation period. The determination of each saturation period is based on the sum of the secondary current from the start point of the first saturation period. A least-squares (LS) technique estimates the DC offset parameters from the single-cycle difference of the secondary current in the unsaturated periods. Removal of DC offset from the secondary current yields the sinusoidal waveform portion. Finally, the LS technique is used once again to estimate the phasor from the sinusoidal waveform portion. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated for a-g faults on a 345-kV 100-km overhead transmission line. The electromagnetic transient program was used to generate fault current signals for different fault angles and remanent fluxes. The performance evaluation shows that the proposed algorithm accurately estimates the phasor of a current signal regardless of DC offset and CT saturation. The paper concludes by describing the hardware implementation of the algorithm on a prototype unit based on a digital signal processor.
Date of Publication: Oct. 2009