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A new type of transmission line pilot protection based on phase segregated model recognition is presented, since the capacitance model and the inductance model are established, respectively, for the external fault and the internal fault. When the internal fault occurs, the capacitance model error is larger than the inductance model error. When the external fault occurs, the inductance model error is larger than the capacitance model error. By computing the model error, the actual state of transmission lines is obtained. Theoretical analysis and electromagnetic transients program (EMTP) simulation demonstrate that this novel protection principle is unnecessary to compensate the distribution capacitance current and has fast operation speed and good performance on resisting transition resistance and transient components.