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Improved Active Sonar Performance Using Costas Waveforms

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5 Author(s)
Pecknold, S.P. ; Defence R&D Canada-Atlantic, Dartmouth, NS, Canada ; Renaud, W.M. ; McGaughey, D.R. ; Theriault, J.A.
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Costas waveforms are a class of waveforms having the form of frequency-hopped pulse trains. When used as a transmit waveform in an active sonar system they may provide superior performance to conventional waveforms such as continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-modulated (FM) pulses, as each Costas waveform provides both range and speed information for a target echo. Matched-filtering identifies individual Costas waveforms from among a set of Costas waveforms that are received. This characteristic allows for more frequent ensonification of a water mass for targets at moderate ranges, giving a higher rate of return echoes for improved target tracking. Alternatively, it offers the potential for overlapping bandwidths and waveform types to be used in a multisonar environment. In this work, the Costas wideband ambiguity, cross- and autocorrelation functions are derived. The range and speed resolutions of Costas waveforms are compared to CW and FM pulse resolutions both via a broadband pulse propagation model and using data obtained during the Defence Research And Development Canada-Atlantic (DRDC Atlantic) Towed Integrated Active-Passive Sonar (TIAPS) deep sea trials in September 2003. Costas waveforms are shown to provide simultaneous range and speed resolution in deep- and shallow-water environments, and Costas waveforms are shown to be individually identifiable at the receiver. The performance of Costas waveforms in reverberation is also briefly examined, and found to be similar to that of FM pulses.

Published in:

Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:34 ,  Issue: 4 )